Researchers are currently conducting a follow-up study8 that explores men’s fertility preferences in more depth, and tests ways in which to influence them. For example, medical evidence demonstrates that pregnancies spaced too close together or too far apart can significantly increase infant mortality and undernutrition.1 Additionally, contraceptive access empowers women to take control of their health and reproductive choices.Although modern birth control methods have been around for decades, many women in developing countries report substantial unmet need for modern contraceptives.2 The UN estimates that 55 million women in sub-Saharan Africa had an unmet need for modern contraception in 2014.3. How can we encourage small farmers to adopt proven agricultural practices and improve their yields and profitability? 2014. There are lots of different types of contraception or ‘birth control’ available, so you can find one that fits in with your lifestyle. Objective Zambia is among the world’s top 10 countries with higher fertility rate (5.5 births/woman); unmet family planning need for births spacing (14%) and limiting births (7%). Tembo, 20, sells roasted mice, a common delicacy in Zambia, to earn a living. Data obtained on the practice of contraception revealed that less than 30% of the respondents (133, 19.3% males and 208, 25.58% females) use contraceptives regularly, while only 109 (15.8%) males and 133 [/risk] Description. Led by affiliated professors, J-PAL sectors guide our research and policy work by conducting literature reviews; by managing research initiatives that promote the rigorous evaluation of innovative interventions by affiliates; and by summarizing findings and lessons from randomized evaluations and producing cost-effectiveness analyses to help inform relevant policy debates. Our Board of Directors, which is composed of J-PAL affiliated professors and senior management, provides overall strategic guidance to J-PAL, our sector programs, and regional offices. The birth control pill is a popular and highly effective method of birth control if taken correctly. Our affiliated professors are based at 74 universities and conduct randomized evaluations around the world to design, evaluate, and improve programs and policies aimed at reducing poverty. Researchers also held focus groups to collect qualitative information from the women about factors that influenced their decisions to redeem the voucher, as well as separate focus groups to ask their husbands about their experiences after receiving the voucher. Zambia General Health Risks: Sexually Transmitted Infections [risk] Hepatitis B and C may be transmitted sexually. Global health has improved considerably over the last four decades, but everywhere the health status of the poor compares unfavourably with that of the more affluent sectors of society.1 In Africa, one in 26 women of reproductive age dies from a maternal cause, as opposed to one in 9400 in Europe.2 Parallel disparities in fertility and in contraceptive use are found between poor and wealthy countries. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. However, the women in these couples were still 26 percentage points (67 percent) more likely to use the voucher in the Individual Group, compared to the women whose husbands were involved. Among eligible married women aged 18–40 living in the clinic’s catchment area who had given birth in the past two years, 749 women participated in a program that provided vouchers for the women to access a wide array of contraceptives at the clinic. We host events around the world and online to share results and policy lessons from randomized evaluations, to build new partnerships between researchers and practitioners, and to train organizations on how to design and conduct randomized evaluations, and use evidence from impact evaluations. “. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000039. Anchored by a network of 227 affiliated professors at universities around the world, J-PAL conducts randomized impact evaluations to answer critical questions in the fight against poverty. Injectables are the most commonly used form of contraceptives, followed by implants and pills. News, ideas, and analysis from J-PAL staff and affiliated professors. The finding was similar to previous studies done in Ethiopia [11, 13]. Teenage pregnancy and child marriage are prevalent in Zambia and are complexly interrelated issues with common causes and effects. Birth control pills are a popular form of contraception, but they come with risks that can interfere with your everyday life. Although with such initiatives in place, Zambia is facing challenges in ensuring contraceptive access to rural women. In Zambia, pregnancies reported as unplanned are common: 16% of births are reported as unwanted, and 26% are reported as being mistimed. Unwanted pregnancies are common, and often result in unsafe abortions. I quietly draw comparisons in my mind between healthcare in Zambia and the UK. (15.23%) female respondents believed that contraception is a safe means of protecting against unwanted pregnancy and/or STD. contraceptive methods and the quantities of contraceptive . What are the causes and consequences of crime, violence, and conflict and how can policy responses improve outcomes for those affected? Complications from abortions cause 30% of the country’s maternal deaths. The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab, Click here for information on J-PAL's response to Covid-19, Household Bargaining and Excess Fertility: An Experimental Study in Zambia, Effects of Preceding Birth Intervals on Neonatal, Infant and Under-Five Years Mortality and Nutritional Status in Developing Countries: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys, Birth Spacing and Risk of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: a Meta-Analysis, Report of a Technical Consultation on Birth Spacing, Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa, Experimental Researcher Helps Improve Health Care in Zambia. Analyse the determinants of contraceptive method choice among available modern contraceptives in Zambia Methods Using secondary level data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, I apply Binomial and Multinomial Logistic Regression to the 6247 binary and multi responses from women to questions on use and method choice of contraceptives. The Population Council defines unplanned births to include mistimed births (births occurring two or more years sooner than desired) and unwanted births (those that the mother did not want at all). How do policies affecting private sector firms impact productivity gaps between higher-income and lower-income countries? Fifty-three percent of women in the Individual Group redeemed the voucher for contraceptives compared to 43 percent of women in the Couple Group, a 23 percent higher redemption rate.  However, lack of access to contraceptives is still high among girls in child marriages, and there is a significant difference in access to contraceptives across class and geographic boundaries. Even when couples had the same short-term goals to postpone pregnancy, but conflicting long-term fertility goals, women were more likely to redeem the voucher and to take up injectable contraceptives when they received private access. Complete abstinence is the only method that prevents pregnancy 100 percent of the time, but most contraceptive methods have a … (1996:9) found that the most common obstetric risk factors were adolescent pregnancies, followed by unsafe abortions and sepsis. Our global office is based at the Department of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As a result, there’s a low rate of contraceptive use among young adults, health workers say. The pill has a less than 1 percent (%) failure rate (meaning less than 1 out of 100 women unintentionally become pregnant) when the pill is used correctly. "Household Bargaining and Excess Fertility: An Experimental Study in Zambia." In this study, women with private access to contraceptives were more likely to obtain them, and were more likely to choose concealable methods than women whose husbands were involved. The pill had no side effects, Tembo was told. 1.1 HIV prevalence and contraceptive use in Rwanda and Zambia. Update: Click here for information on J-PAL's response to Covid-19. There are different methods of contraception, including: long-acting reversible contraception - the implant or intra uterine device (IUD) hormonal contraception - the pill or the Depo Provera injection Opposition to contraception is the third most common reason in Asia; it appears to have increased in recent years in Armenia, Pakistan and the Philippines. Studies in Tanzania and Nepal demonstrated that women obtaining contraceptives at pharmacies were able to self-screen for contraindications to combined oral contraceptives about as well as nurses (Chin-Quee et al., 2013; Rai et al., 1999). Central Statistical Office [Zambia], Ministry of Health [Zambia], and ICF International. J-PAL North America is based at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States. The birth control method you choose must take into consideration personal preferences, habits and health concerns. We partner with NGOs, governments, donors, multilateral organizations, businesses, and other research centers to conduct randomized evaluations, build research capacity, scale up what works, and promote the use of evidence in decision making. This finding suggests that women place strong value on the quality of their relationships, and that the decision to conceal contraceptives may carry unwanted feelings of mistrust or alienation even when husbands are not aware that their wives have obtained access to contraception. The 2013 ZDHS reported that injectable contraceptives, which are easily concealed, are the most prevalent contraceptive method among married women. However, for women who miss taking their pills, the failure rate goes up to roughly 8%, or 8 out of 100 women become pregnant unintentionally. The aim of this study was to explore factors in the social and cultural environment shaping young people’s sexual behaviour, with specific attention to teenage pregnancy and child marriage in Eastern Zambia. While there was no increase in divorce or domestic violence in this study, women who received the voucher privately were less likely to report being healthy and happy after the program. Zambia has a largely rural population of 13.1million (60.5% rural and 39.5% urban), of whom 45% are below the age of 15.1 Although the population is relatively small, it is geographically scattered across 752,612 Km,2 making delivery of health services and products, particularly Access to modern contraception provides essential benefits for women and their families by allowing them to control when and how many children they have. 2 Method-specific contraceptive prevalence varies widely across the world. It means you can relax and enjoy sex without worrying about getting pregnant – however you will still need to use a condom to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs).. Conclusion: In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. For these women, private access increased the likelihood of voucher redemption by 16 percentage points (34 percent). Part of the answer is that physical access to reliable contraception remains limited in many low-income or rural areas. American Economic Review 104(7): 2210-37. Methods of contraception that are available include: implants, intrauterine devices (IUDs), injections, pills, vaginal rings, barrier methods, sterilisation, emergency contraception and natural methods. Such family planning is important because early, ill-timed, or unwanted childbirth can increase health risks for both mother and child. 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